What is the meaning of “ḥizbiyyah” [partisanship]? What is the meaning of [it being said] that an individual has ḥizbiyyah? Who exactly are ḥizbīs [partisans]? What is it they call to? And what is their methodology?
Everyone who is in contradiction with the methodology of the Prophet ﷺ and his Sunnah is from the deviated aḥzāb [coalitions of parties].
Ḥizbiyyah has no preconditions. Allāh called the nations of the past aḥzāb, and He called the Quraish, when they banded together and [when those] from other groups joined forces with them [forming] powerful factions, aḥzāb.
They had no organization [in operation]; they had nothing. So it is not from the conditions of [what constitutes] a ḥizb that it be organized. As such, if this [particular] ḥizb was set up as an organization, it is greater in evil.
So blind fanaticism towards a particular thinking that is in contradiction with the Book of Allāh and the Sunnah of the Messenger ﷺ, and having loyalty and enmity based on it, is taḥazzub [forming a party]; this is taḥazzub even if no organization were formed.
[One] adopted a deviated idea and got people together on it–this is a ḥizb, whether he set it up as an organization or […] not. As long as they come together for [something] that is in contradiction with the Book and the Sunnah, this is a ḥizb.
The disbelievers that were at war against the Messenger [ﷺ] did not have the organizations that exist now. Even so, Allāh applied the term aḥzāb to them. How [is that]? It is because they became a faction to support falsehood, and they fought against the truth.
[Allāh says what in English means:]
Before [the disbelievers of your time], the people of Nūḥ [Noah] and those who formed factions [from almost every nation] after them disbelieved [in their Messengers]; each nation [from those that had disbelieved] was intent on getting a hold of their messenger [to kill him], and they came up with false arguments so they could reject the truth. [Ghāfir: 5]
They formed strong factions. Quraish, Ghaṭafān, Quraiẓah and various tribes joined together; they were not organized to the degree of this organizing [we see in our time]–they joined [forces]. Allāh called them aḥzāb, and the sūrah [chapter of the Qur’an] was named “The Sūrah of the Aḥzāb”. Were the Aḥzāb set up under organizations?
Thus, it is not from the conditions of being a ḥizb that it be set up as an organization. If it holds a belief in a false ideology, argues in its defense, debates in its defense and comes loyally to its aid…this is a ḥizb.
After that, if that becomes more organized, may Allāh bless you, and it mobilizes funds, etc., of course, it has gone far into ḥizbiyyah and become one of the deviated aḥzāb, and all refuge is sought with Allāh.